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Palestinians will submit UN membership

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19 September 2011 –
The President of the Palestinian Authority, Mahmoud Abbas, told Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon today that he intends to submit an application this Friday for Palestine to become a United Nations Member State.

During their meeting, which took place at UN Headquarters on the margins of the 66th session of the General Assembly, Mr. Ban informed Mr. Abbas of his intention to perform his duties under the UN Charter. Palestine currently has observer status at the UN.

According to the provisions of the Charter, the Secretary-General is tasked with verifying a letter requesting UN membership, following which he sends it to the Security Council and the General Assembly.

The application is considered by the Council, which decides whether or not to recommend admission to the 193-member Assembly, which has to adopt a resolution for the admission of any new Member State.

“The Secretary-General reiterated his support for the two-State solution and stressed his desire to ensure that the international community and the two parties can find a way forward for resuming negotiations within a legitimate and balanced framework,” Mr. Ban’s spokesperson, Martin Nesirky, told reporters.

The Secretary-General also discussed with Mr. Abbas the ongoing efforts in this regard by the diplomatic Quartet, comprising the European Union, Russia, the UN and the United States.

Israeli-Palestinian peace talks have been stalled since late September 2010 following Israel’s refusal to extend a 10-month freeze on settlement activity in the occupied Palestinian territory.

That decision prompted Mr. Abbas to withdraw from direct talks with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, which had only resumed a few weeks earlier after a two-year hiatus.

In a related development, the Special Adviser to the Secretary-General on Sport for Development and Peace, Wilfried Lemke, has just concluded a three-day visit to Israel and the occupied Palestinian territories.

“At a time when the eyes of the world are turned to the region once again and when the question of Palestinian statehood is highly prominent on the international agenda, the Special Adviser is determined to continue his work in mobilizing the power of sport to open up channels of dialogue and mutual understanding, and driving social development in the region,” stated a news release issued by Mr. Lemke’s office.

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Our local index includes more than a million works in various formats that meet these criteria. (Over 40,000 are in our "curated collection", representing entries we've personally edited. The rest are in our "extended shelves", entries that are provided by other organizations and imported in bulk.) All of the books we list should be free for personal, noncommercial use. You can:

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SLAMABAD: As tension prevails between the United States and Pakistan, Prime Minister Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani summoned Foreign Minister Hina Rabbani Khar back to Islamabad on Sunday for the All Parties Conference (APC).

Khar’s presence is said to be vital during the APC as she was one of the few members of the civilian leadership to have been directly approached by US officials regarding allegations of Pakistan running a proxy war in Afghanistan via the Haqqani network.

According to the Pakistan embassy in the United States, Khar will be cutting her trip short and likely flying back to Pakistan tonight. She will meet both Gilani and President Zardari on arrival, say sources.

Gilani on Sunday contacted leaders of various political parties to develop a consensus over the US allegations against Pakistani security institutions via the APC.

(Read more: Pakistan not responsible for security of US forces, says PM)

Sources said that the government has decided to take all the political parties on board before drafting a strategy over the allegations by the US that Pakistan was complicit with the Haqqani network responsible for last week’s attack on the US embassy and a Nato headquarters in Kabul.

Gilani contacted Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) chief Mian Nawaz Sharif, Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) chief Altaf Hussain and Awami National Party (ANP) chief Asfandayar Wali .

On Sunday, Pakistan’s military leadership also unanimously rejected the allegations leveled against Pakistani security institutions by the United States.

The six hour long emergency Corps Commanders meeting chaired by Chief of Army Staff General Ashfaq Pervez Kayani concluded in Rawalpindi on Sunday. Sources said no formal declaration of the meeting will be issued.

Chairman joint chiefs of staff committee (CJCSC) General Khalid Shamim Wynne expressed concern over the recent statements made by the US, and said that Pak-US relations need to be improved.

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LAMABAD: Interior Minister Rehman Malik said that the Haqqani network were created and trained by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

Speaking to the media in Islamabad, Malik rejected US claims of the Haqqani network operating from Pakistan soil.

He maintained that the Haqqanis have no links with Pakistan and are operating from Afghanistan.

Malik’s statements run contrary to claims by the Haqqani’s, who recently warned Washington against any military adventure in the North Waziristan tribal agency.

Sirajuddin Haqqani said he’d look forward to a US ground attack in North Waziristan. “The United States will suffer more losses [in North Waziristan] than they did in Afghanistan,” he said.

As reported earlier, the top US military officer Admiral Mike Mullen had called the Haqqani network a “veritable arm” of Pakistan’s intelligence service and accused Pakistan of “exporting” violent extremism to Afghanistan.

“With ISI support, Haqqani operatives planned and conducted (September 11) truck bomb attack, as well as the assault on our embassy,” Mullen said.

The Interior Minister said no compromise will be made on Pakistan’s sovereignty as Pakistan suffered a loss of $68 billion in the fight against terrorism.

Malik also said that no one will be allowed to enter Pakistan without immigration clearance.

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ISLAMABAD: The Pakistan Army has decided not to reverse its decision to expel US military trainers and scale back the activities of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) operatives in the country despite Washington’s punitive move to withhold $800 million worth of assistance.
The decision was taken at a meeting of the corps commanders chaired by Army chief General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani on Tuesday to discuss the fallout of the US step, said a military official. “We are not going to reconsider some of the decisions we have taken with regards to the activities of CIA in Pakistan,” the official said on condition of anonymity.
The security establishment, which was irked by the unilateral US raid that killed al Qaeda chief Osama bin Laden in May, launched a crackdown against the ‘CIA network’ to limit its activities.
Meanwhile, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff General Khalid Shameem Wynne told a top visiting US commander that Pakistan would not accept conditional aid and regretted the lack of acknowledgement by Washington for Pakistan’s “sacrifices in the battle against militancy.”
General James N Mattis, Commander US Central Command (Centcom), was on an announced trip to Pakistan to discuss regional security in the wake of recent developments. However, there was no official word if the top US general met General Kayani.
It is believed that in recent months General Kayani has made deliberate efforts not to publicise his engagements with US officials after being perceived to be too close to the Americans in the wake of the Bin Laden debacle.
A statement issued by the ISPR after the corps commanders meeting appeared to play down the US decision to suspend military assistance. “The forum reiterated the resolve to fight the menace of terrorism in our own national interest using our own resources,” the statement read.

However, it did not reveal if thousands of Pakistani troops would be pulled out from the Pak-Afghan border region if relations with the US deteriorated.
The somewhat mild reaction was attributed to the fact that the military hopes to settle the issue of withholding of aid through dialogue with American authorities, said military sources.
However, sources say, the corps commanders expressed their concern over the US decision, noting that it would not help the anti-terrorism campaign and will also cast a negative impact on the Pak-US bilateral cooperation in the fight against terrorism.
The top brass was also irked by the many strings attached to the US assistance. “No country has done more than Pakistan to eliminate al Qaeda and its affiliate groups,” said a senior military official. “Yet we remain in the eye of the storm, which is unfair.”
The official added that military commanders assert that the US must keep in mind the sacrifices of the Pakistani armed forces before making such harsh decisions.
According to an ISPR spokesman, the army chief appreciated the conduct of the ongoing operations. Referring to Mohmand Agency, he instructed that all efforts must be utilised in coordination with the civil administration for safe repatriation of the IDPs.
He said that the aim of the operation in Kurram Agency was to clear the area of miscreants involved in terrorism, kidnapping, killing of locals and blocking of roads connecting lower and upper Kurram.

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RAWALPINDI: Pakistan’s military leadership on Sunday unanimously rejected the allegations leveled against Pakistani security institutions by the United States.
The six hour long emergency Corps Commanders meeting chaired by Chief of Army Staff General Ashfaq Pervez Kayani concluded in Rawalpindi on Sunday. Sources said no formal declaration of the meeting will be issued.
Chairman joint chiefs of staff committee (CJCSC) General Khalid Shamim Wynne expressed concern over the recent statements made by the US, and said that Pak-US relations need to be improved.
Sources said the military top brass decided that every decision is to be taken in Pakistan’s interest and that attacks from Afghanistan on the Pak-Afghan border will not be tolerated in the future.
An emergency meeting of Corps Commanders was called by General Kayani in the wake of the prevailing security situation and tension in relations with the United States.
An Inter Services Public Relations (ISPR) statement said the meeting was being chaired by Kayani. Issues regarding national security are on top of the agenda.
All corps commanders and principle staff officers attended the meeting.
According to sources, recent allegations leveled by US military chief Mike Mullen that Pakistan has links with the Haqqani network will also be discussed.
The Pakistan Army has denied accusations by senior US officials that Pakistan’s intelligence service supports the Haqqani network, saying it is based in Afghanistan.
However, spokesman for the ISPR Major General Athar Abbas did acknowledge that the ISI had contacts with the Haqqanis.
He told CNN that any intelligence agency prefers keeping contacts with opposition groups and terrorist organizations for some sort of positive outcome.
He stressed that this does not mean the ISI supports or endorses the organization.

Abbas also added that Pakistan is not the only country which maintains contacts with the Haqqanis.
He also expressed his shock at Mullen’s assertion that Pakistan was complicit in recent attacks against the US Embassy in Kabul.
In an earlier statement, Kayani termed the comments by Mullen as ‘unfortunate’, and ‘not based on facts’.
In the first official reaction to the slew of public statements made by various levels of the US administration against the ISI and suspected links between the Haqqani network and the Pakistan establishment, Kayani said that he had held a constructive meeting with Admiral Mullen in Spain last week.
He termed the statements following that meeting as very disturbing.
On the question of contacts with Haqqani network, Kayani said that Admiral Mullen knows well which countries are in contact with the Haqqanis. Singling out Pakistan as the chief protagonist is neither fair nor productive, he said.
‘Self-defeating blame game’
Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani on Saturday rejected US allegations linking Islamabad with the Haqqani terror network, saying the “blame game is self-defeating”.
Gilani said such accusations would only benefit the militants, and added that they showed US policy in Afghanistan was in “disarray”.
“We strongly reject assertions of complicity with the Haqqanis or of proxy war,” he said in a policy statement issued by his office amid a growing rift with the United States.
“Blame game is self-defeating… It will only benefit the enemies of peace. Only terrorists and militants will gain from any fissures and divisions.”
The White House demanded Friday that Pakistan “break any link they have” with the Haqqanis, the al Qaeda-linked Taliban faction blamed for the recent attack on the US embassy in Kabul.
A day earlier top US military officer Admiral Mike Mullen directly accused Pakistan’s intelligence service of supporting the network’s attack on the embassy and a truck bombing on a NATO outpost.

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History Of Pakistan

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British Rule and Muslim League

The British ruled the Indian subcontinent for nearly 200 years-from 1756 to 1947. After the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the British government abolished the powers of the British East India Company, which had ruled the sub-continent on behalf of the British Crown, and took on direct powers of governance. Political reforms were initiated, allowing the formation of political parties. The Indian National Congress, representing the overwhelming majority of Hindus, was created in 1885. The Muslim League was formed in 1906 to represent and protect the position of the Muslim minority. When the British introduced constitutional reforms in 1909, the Muslims demanded and acquired separate electoral rolls. This guaranteed Muslims representation in the provincia l as well as national legislatures until the dawn of independence in 1947.The idea of a separate Muslim state in south Asia was raised in 1930 by the poet and philosopher Sir Muhammad Iqbal.

Quaid-e-Azam He suggested that the north-western provinces of British India and the native state of Jammu and Kashmir should be joined into such a state. The name "Pakistan", which came to be used to describe this grouping, is thought to have originated as a compound abbreviation made up of letters of the names of the provinces involved, as follows: Punjab, Afghania (North West Frontier Province), Kashmir, Indus-Sindh, and Balochistan. An alternative explanation says the name means "Land of the Pure". By the end of the 1930s, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, leader of the Muslim League and considered the founding father of Pakistan, had also decided that the only way to preserve Indian Muslims from Hindu domination was to establish a separate Muslim state.

Creation of Pakistan
In 1940 the Muslim League formally endorsed the partitioning of British India and the creation of Pakistan as a separate Muslim state. During pre-independence talks in 1946, therefore, the British government found that the stand of the Muslim League on separation and that of the Congress on the territorial unity of India were irreconcilable. The British then decided on partition and on August 15, 1947, transferred power dividedly to India and Pakistan. The latter, however, came into existence in two parts: West Pakistan, as Pakistan stands today, and East Pakistan, now known as Bangladesh. The two were separated by 1,600 km (1,000 mi) of Indian territory

Problems of Partition
The division of the subcontinent caused tremendous dislocations of populations. Some 6 million Hindus and Sikhs moved from Pakistan into India, and about 8 million Muslims migrated from India to Pakistan.

The demographic shift was accompanied by considerable inter-ethnic violence, including massacres, that reinforced bitterness between the two countries. This bitterness was further intensified by disputes over the accession of the former native states of India to either country. Nearly all of these 562 widely scattered polities had joined either India or Pakistan; the princes of Hyderabad, Junagadh, and Kashmir, however, had chosen to join neither country. On August 15, 1947, these three states became technically independent, but when the Muslim ruler of Junagadh, with its predominantly Hindu population, joined Pakistan a month later, India annexed his territory. Hyderabad's Muslim prince, ruling over a mostly Hindu population, tried to postpone any decision indefinitely, but in September 1948 India also settled that issue by pre-emptive annexation. The Hindu ruler of Jammu and Kashmir, whose subjects were 85 per cent Muslim, decided to join India. Pakistan, however,

questioned his right to do so, and a war broke out between India and Pakistan. Although the UN subsequently resolved that a plebiscite be held under UN auspices to determine the future of Kashmir, India continued to occupy about two thirds of the state and refused to hold a plebiscite. This deadlock, which still persists, has intensified suspicion and antagonism between the two countries.

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Dengue Fever

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engue fever (UK: /ˈdɛŋɡeɪ/, US: /ˈdɛŋɡiː/), also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases the disease develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs.

Dengue is transmitted by several species of mosquito within the genus Aedes, principally A. aegypti. The virus has four different types; infection with one type usually gives lifelong immunity to that type, but only short-term immunity to the others. Subsequent infection with a different type increases the risk of severe complications. As there is no vaccine, prevention is sought by reducing the habitat and the number of mosquitoes and limiting exposure to bites.

Treatment of acute dengue is supportive, using either oral or intravenous rehydration for mild or moderate disease, and intravenous fluids and blood transfusion for more severe cases. The incidence of dengue fever has increased dramatically since the 1960s, with around 50–100 million people infected yearly. Early descriptions of the condition date from 1779, and its viral cause and the transmission were elucidated in the early 20th century. Dengue has become a worldwide problem since the Second World War and is endemic in more than 110 countries. Apart from eliminating the mosquitoes, work is ongoing on a vaccine, as well as medication targeted directly at the virus.
Signs and symptoms
Typically, people infected with dengue virus are asymptomatic (80%) or only have mild symptoms such as an uncomplicated fever.[1][2][3] Others have more severe illness (5%), and in a small proportion it is life-threatening.[1][3] The incubation period (time between exposure and onset of symptoms) ranges from 3–14 days, but most often it is 4–7 days.[4] Therefore, travelers returning from endemic areas are unlikely to have dengue if fever or other symptoms start more than 14 days after arriving home.[5] Children often experience symptoms similar to those of the common cold and gastroenteritis (vomiting and diarrhea),[6] but are more susceptible to the severe complications.

Clinical course

The characteristic symptoms of dengue are sudden-onset fever, headache (typically located behind the eyes), muscle and joint pains, and a rash. The alternative name for dengue, "break-bone fever", comes from the associated muscle and joint pains.[1][7] The course of infection is divided into three phases: febrile, critical, and recovery.[8]

The febrile phase involves high fever, often over 40 °C (104 °F), and is associated with generalized pain and a headache; this usually lasts two to seven days.[7][8] At this stage, a rash occurs in approximately 50–80% of those with symptoms.[7][9] It occurs in the first or second day of symptoms as flushed skin, or later in the course of illness (days 4–7), as a measles-like rash.[9][10] Some petechiae (small red spots that do not disappear when the skin is pressed, which are caused by broken capillaries) can appear at this point,[8] as may some mild bleeding from the mucous membranes of the mouth and nose.[5][7] The fever itself is classically biphasic in nature, breaking and then returning for one or two days, although there is wide variation in how often this pattern actually happens.[10][11]

In some people, the disease proceeds to a critical phase, which follows the resolution of the high fever and typically lasts one to two days.[8] During this phase there may be significant fluid accumulation in the chest and abdominal cavity due to increased capillary permeability and leakage. This leads to depletion of fluid from the circulation and decreased blood supply to vital organs.[8] During this phase, organ dysfunction and severe bleeding, typically from the gastrointestinal tract, may occur.[5][8] Shock (dengue shock syndrome) and hemorrhage (dengue hemorrhagic fever) occur in less than 5% of all cases of dengue,[5] however those who have previously been infected with other serotypes of dengue virus ("secondary infection") are at an increased risk.[5][12]

The recovery phase occurs next, with resorption of the leaked fluid into the bloodstream.[8] This usually lasts two to three days.[5] The improvement is often striking, but there may be severe itching and a slow heart rate.[5][8] During this stage, a fluid overload state may occur; if it affects the brain, it may cause a reduced level of consciousness or seizures.

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Indain Finance Minister

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Father's Name
Late Shri Kamada Kinkar Mukherjee
Mother's Name
Late Smt. Rajlakshmi Mukherjee
Date of Birth
11th December, 1935
Place of Birth
Mirati, Kirnahar, District Birbhum (West Bengal) India
Marital Status
Married on 13th July, 1957
Spouse Name
Smt. Suvra Mukherjee
Two sons and one daughter
Educational Qualifications
M.A (History), M.A (Political Science) LL.B, D. Ltt.(Honoris Causa) Educated at Vidyasagar College.
Suri Calcutta University, West Bengal Journalist and Author
Family Background
Father was a freedom fighter, was imprisoned for more than 10 years, participated in all Congress movements from 1920, was a member of AICC, and West Bengal Legislative Council (1952-64), President, District Congress Committee, Birbhum (WB).
Permanent Address
2-A, 1st Floor,
60/27, Kabi Bharti Sarani (Lake Road),
Tel: (033) 24648366
Delhi Address
  1. S-22, Greater Kailash- II, New Delhi-110048
  2. 13, Talkatora Road, New Delhi-110001
Tel: (011) 23737623, E-mail:

Contact Us

Officers to be contacted:
Department of Economic Affairs

Shri Prabodh Saxena
Ministry of Finance
Department of Economic Affairs
Room No. 40-B
New Delhi - 110001(India)
Telephone No: 91-11-23093558
Email: prabodh[dot]saxena[at]nic[dot]in
Department of Expenditure

Shri Siddharth Sharma
Ministry of Finance
Department of Expenditure
Room No. 76
New Delhi - 110001 (India)
Telephone No: 91-11-23092604
Email: siddharth[dot]s[at]nic[dot]in
Department of Revenue

Shri Anoop Kumar Srivastava
JS (Revenue)
Ministry of Finance
Department ofRevenue
Room No. 46, North Block
New Delhi - 110 001
Telephone No: 011 - 23094595
Email: jsrev[at]nic[dot]in
Department of Financial Services

Shri Alok Nigam
Joint Secretary(BO)
Ministry of Finance
Department of Financial Services
Room No. 32, Jeevan Deep Building
Parliament Street
New Delhi - 110 001
Telephone No: 011 - 23748705/23342287
About the Ministry

Finance Minister
Minister of State (Revenue)
Minister of State (EB&I)
Economic Affairs
Revenue (External Website that opens in a new window)
Financial Services
Disinvestment (External Website that opens in a new window)
Allocation of Business
Who's Who
Acts & Rules
RTI Information

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Free Web Hosting Tips Article #1

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Can you really get FREE web hosting?

Yes, there are hundreds of free hosting web sites, as far as not having to pay any money to have your website hosted. Generally they either cost you in time, web hosting restrictions, or modifying your free web pages by adding popups, banners, or other adverts. When looking for free web hosting (especially on search engines), you should beware that there are also a large number of commercial web hosts that claim to offer free hosting services, but those often have a catch, such as paying an excessive amount for a domain name or other service, and therefore aren't really free. The free free hosting guide below will give you some tips for finding the right free webhosting comapny for you.
How do the free web hosts make money?

The free website hosts often make money in other ways, such as putting banners, popups, or popunders ads on your free webpages. Some free web hosting companies do not put ads on your site, but require you as the webmaster to click on banners in their control panel or signup process, or just display banners in the file manager in hopes you will click them. Some lure visitors with free hosting in hopes you will upgrade and pay for advanced features. A few send you occasional emails with ads, or may even sell your email address. A new method that is becoming popular is requiring a certain number of "quality" forum posting, usually as a means of getting free content for them and thereby being able to display more ads to their website visitors.

Are free web hosts reliable?

Generally no, although there are a few exceptions. If the free host is making money from banner ads or other revenue sources directly from the free hosting service, then they likely will stay in business, provided someone doesn't abuse their web hosting server with spam, hacking, etc., as often happens to new free web hosting companies with liberal signup policies. If the freehost accepts just anyone, especially with an automated instant activation and it offers features such as PHP or CGI, then some users invariably try to find ways to abuse it, which can cause the free server to have a lot of downtime or the free web server to be slow. It is best if you choose a very selective free hoster which only accepts quality sites (assuming you have one).
Uses for free webspace

Free web hosting is not recommended for businesses unless you can get domain hosting from an ad-free host that is very selective. Other reasons for using free hosting websites would be to learn the basics of website hosting, have a personal website with pictures of your family or whatever, a doorway page to another web site of yours, or to try scripts you have developed on different web hosting environments.
How to find the right free web hosting site

The best place to search for free webhosting is on a free webspace directory website (i.e. a web site which specializes in listing only free web hosting providers). There are some which add new free hosts pretty much every week (and if it is updated often, has usually had to delete about as many). There are also many which almost never update their web site, and a huge percent of their links and info are outdated. Unfortunately that includes most of the directories that were the best several years ago. The problem is free hosts change so often, and most fold up in less than a year (often even after only a day or two), that it is hard to keep such a freehosting directory up-to-date. The most recommended free web space directory is Free Web Hosting (, which has a detailed list of over 200 free web hosting providers with user reviews, ratings, and free hosting searchable database. It is updated daily, and the advanced free web hosting search has 42 options, helping you to find the free hosting package with all the features you need, such as CGI, PHP, MySQL, ASP, SSI, Ruby on Rails, FrontPage server extensions, and even free cpanel web hosting.

For a smaller, more selective list of the best free hosts, there are also these free webspace hosting directories:
Best Free Webspace (
Free Hosting (
Free Webspace (
Other (usually less useful) resources include subcategories of freebies sites, search engines and directories, and forums. Your ISP might also supply you with free webhosting.

Hints for finding the best free web hosting service

Generally it is best not to choose a free hosting package with more features than you need, and also check to see if the company somehow receives revenue from the free hosting itself to keep it in business. As already mentioned, it is best to try to get accepted to a more selective free host if possible. Look at other sites hosted there to see what kind of ads are on your site, and the server speed (keep in mind newer hosts will be faster at first). Read the Terms of Service (TOS) and host features to make sure it has enough bandwidth for your site, large webspace and file size limit, and any scripting options you might need. Read free webspace reviews and ratings by other users on free hosting directories. If you don't have your own domain name, you might want to use a free URL forwarding service so you can change your site's host if needed.

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Free Hosting

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Free Web Hosting with PHP, MySQL and cPanel, No Ads
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Economy of French Republic

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This article addresses the current economic situation of France. For historical information, see Economic history of France.

France is the world's fifth largest and wealthiest economy.[7] It is the second largest economy in Europe (behind its main economic partner Germany).[7] France's economy entered the 2008-2009 recession later and left it earlier than most comparable economies, only enduring four quarters of contraction. As of September 2010, France's economy has been growing continuously since the second quarter of 2009.[8] Between January and March 2011, France's GDP growth has been stronger than expected, at 1%, one of the best figures in Europe.[9]

La Défense is a major business district in Paris
Rank 5th (nominal) / 9th (PPP)
Currency 1 euro (€1) = 100 cent
Fiscal year Calendar year
Trade organisations EU, WTO and OECD
GDP $2.113 trillion
GDP growth 1.6% (2010)
GDP per capita Nominal : $38,016 (2008)
GDP by sector agriculture (2.1%), industry (19%), services (78.9%) (2009 est)
Inflation (CPI) 1.5% (2010 est.)
below poverty line 13.2% (2008)[1]
Gini index 32.7 (2008)
Labour force 28.21 million (2010 est.)
Labour force
by occupation services (71.8%), industry (24.3%), agriculture (3.8%) (2009)
Unemployment 9.6% (Feb. 2011) [2]
Average gross salary 3,931 € / 5,307 $, monthly (2006)[3]
Average net salary 1,828 € / 2,468 $, monthly (2006)[3]
Main industries machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics; textiles, food processing; tourism
Ease of Doing Business Rank 26th[4]

Exports $508.7 billion (2010 est.)
Export goods machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel, beverages, electronics
Main export partners Germany 15.88%, Italy 8.16%, Spain 7.8%, Belgium 7.44%, United Kingdom 7.04%, United States 5.65%, Netherlands 3.99% (2009)
Imports $577.7 billion (2010 est.)
Import goods machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, chemicals
Main import partners Germany 19.41%, Belgium 11.61%, Italy 7.97%, Netherlands 7.15%, Spain 6.68%, United Kingdom 4.9%, United States 4.72%, China 4.44% (2009)
FDI stock $1.207 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
Gross external debt $4.698 trillion (30 June 2010)
Public finances
Public debt 83.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
Revenues $1.241 trillion (2009 est.)
Expenses $1.441 trillion (2010 est.)
Economic aid donor: ODA $10.1 billion (2006) [3]
Credit rating AAA (Domestic)
AAA (Foreign)
AAA (T&C Assessment)
(Standard & Poor's)[5]
Foreign reserves US$191.689 billion (March 2011)[6]
Main data source: CIA World Fact Book
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars

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Economy of the United States

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The economy of the United States is the world's largest national economy. Its nominal GDP was estimated to be nearly $14.7 trillion in 2010,[1] approximately a quarter of nominal global GDP.[15][16] Its GDP at purchasing power parity was also the largest in the world, approximately a fifth of global GDP at purchasing power parity.[15] The U.S. economy also maintains a very high level of output per capita. In 2010, it was estimated to have a per capita GDP (PPP) of $47,284, the 7th highest in the world. The U.S is the largest trading nation in the world. Its three largest trading partners as of 2010 are Canada, China and Mexico.

Historically, the U.S. economy has maintained a stable overall GDP growth rate, a low unemployment rate, and high levels of research and capital investment funded by both national and, because of decreasing saving rates, increasingly by foreign investors. It has been the world's largest national economy since the 1870s[17][18] and remains the world's largest manufacturer, representing 19% of the world's manufacturing output. In 2009, consumer spending, coupled with government health care spending constituted 70% of the American economy.[19] About 30% of the entire world's millionaire population reside in the United States (in 2009).[20] Furthermore, 34% of the world's billionaires are American (in 2011).[21][22] The US is also home to the world's largest stock exchange, the New York Stock Exchange. It also boasts the world's largest gold reserves and the world's largest gold depository, the New York Federal Reserve Bank. The United States is also home to 139 of the world's 500 largest companies, which is almost twice that of any other country.[23] A large contributor to the country's success has also been a very strong and stable currency. The US dollar holds about 60% of world reserves, as compared to its top competitor, the euro, which controls about 24%.

Since the 1960s, the United States economy absorbed savings from the rest of the world. The phenomenon is subject to discussion among economists. The US is by far the most heavily invested-into country in the world, with foreign investments made in the US measuring almost $2.4 trillion, which is more than twice that of any other country.[24] The US is also by far the largest investor in the world, with US investments in foreign countries totaling over $3.3 trillion, which is almost twice that of any other country.[25] Like other developed countries, the United States faces retiring baby boomers who have already begun withdrawing money from Social Security; however, the American population is young and growing when compared to Europe or Japan. The United States public debt is in excess of $14 trillion and continues to grow at a rate of about $5.48 billion each day by direct calculation between December 31, 2010 and July 31, 2011.[26][27] Total public and private debt was $50.2 trillion at the end of the first quarter of 2010, or 3.5 times GDP.[28] Domestic financial assets totaled $131 trillion and domestic financial liabilities totaled $106 trillion.[29] Due in part to the amount of both public and private investment, the economy of the United States is regarded as a type of mixed economy.

Rank 1st (nominal) / 1st (PPP)
Currency United States Dollar (USD)
Fiscal year October 1 – September 30
GDP $14.527 trillion (2010)[1] (1st, nominal and PPP)
GDP growth 3.0% (2010)[1]
GDP per capita $46,844 (2010)[2] (17th, nominal; 6th, PPP)
GDP by sector agriculture: (1.2%), industry: (21.9%), services: (76.9%) (2009 est.)
Inflation (CPI) 2.1% (February 2011)[3]
below poverty line 15.1% (2010)[4]
Gini index 45 (List of countries)
Labor force 154.5 million (includes unemployed) (2009 est.)
Labor force
by occupation

farming, forestry, and fishing: 0.7% manufacturing, extraction, transportation, and crafts: 20.3% managerial, professional, and technical: 37.3% sales and office: 24.2% other services: 17.6%
note: figures exclude the unemployed (2009)
Unemployment 9.2% (June 2011)
Main industries petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, creative industries, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining, defense, biomedical research and health care services, computers and robotics
Ease of Doing Business Rank 5th[5]
Exports $1.280 trillion f.o.b (2010)[1]
Export goods agricultural products (soybeans, fruit, corn) 9.2%, industrial supplies (organic chemicals) 26.8%, capital goods (transistors, aircraft, motor vehicle parts, computers, telecommunications equipment) 49.0%, consumer goods (automobiles, medicines) 15.0% (2009)
Main export partners Canada, 13.2%; Mexico, 8.3%; China, 4.3%; Japan, 3.3%. (2009)[6]
Imports $1.948 trillion c.i.f. (2010)[1]
Import goods agricultural products 4.9%, industrial supplies 32.9% (crude oil 8.2%), capital goods 30.4% (computers, telecommunications equipment, motor vehicle parts, office machines, electric power machinery), consumer goods 31.8% (automobiles, clothing, medicines, furniture, toys) (2009)
Main import partners China, 15.4%; Canada, 11.6%; Mexico, 9.1%; Japan, 4.9%; Germany, 3.7%. (2009)[6]
FDI stock $2.398 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)
Gross external debt $14.39 trillion (30 Sept 2010)[7]
Public finances
Public debt $14.72 trillion (Sep 2011)[8] 98% of GDP
Revenues $2.162 trillion (2010)[9]
Expenses $3.456 trillion (2010)[9]
Economic aid ODA $19 billion, 0.2% of GDP (2004)[10]
Credit rating

Standard & Poor's:[11]
AA+ (Domestic)
AA+ (Foreign)
AAA (T&C Assessment)
Outlook: Negative[12]
Outlook: Negative[13]
Outlook: Stable

Foreign reserves US$140.607 billion (May 2011)[14]
Main data source: CIA World Fact Book
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars
The American labor market has attracted immigrants from all over the world and in 2009 ranked 16th in terms of net migration rate. The United States is ranked fourth, down from first in 2008-2009 due to the economic crisis, in the Global Competitiveness Report.[30] The country is one of the world's largest and most influential financial markets, home to major stock and commodities exchanges like NASDAQ, NYSE, AMEX, CME, and PHLX.

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Russia Vs United States Relations

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United States and the Soviet Union

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In the late 1980s, Eastern European nations took advantage of the relaxation of Soviet control under Mikhail Gorbachev and began to break away from communist rule. On July 31, 1991, the START I treaty cutting back nuclear warheads was signed by Gorbachev and U.S. president George H.W. Bush. In December 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed and the Commonwealth of Independent States was formed. With the ending of Communism, relations between Russia and the United States warmed rapidly.
The aggressive privatization/free market reforms implemented by Russian President Boris Yeltsin during the 1990s were strongly encouraged and supported by the U.S. administrations of George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton, and by American economists and corporations. However, the reforms, known as "shock therapy", produced a major economic crisis in Russia, resulting in skyrocketing poverty, and the rise of corrupt "oligarchs" who amassed power and tremendous wealth after acquiring control of the former Soviet state industries. Public order and stability deteriorated greatly.

In regard to international affairs, Russia largely stayed on the sidelines during this period but early signs of eventual tensions between the nations were visible during the late 1990s. Although lending tactical support to its historical ally, Serbia, Russia stood aside and did not attempt to block the 1999 Kosovo War in Serbia, even though both Russia and China had strongly condemned it. Yeltsin denounced the Clinton administration's support of Kosovo. Later that year Clinton and Yeltsin clashed over the war in Chechnya and Yeltsin stirred controversy by stating "Yesterday, Clinton permitted himself to put pressure on Russia. It seems he has for a minute, for a second, for half a minute, forgotten that Russia has a full arsenal of nuclear weapons. He has forgotten about that." Clinton dismissed Yeltsin's comments stating: "I didn't think he'd forgotten that America was a great power when he disagreed with what I did in Kosovo."

During the presidencies of Vladimir Putin and George W. Bush, the U.S. and Russia began to have more serious disagreements. Under Putin, Russia became more assertive in international affairs than it had been under his predecessor; under Bush, the U.S. took an increasingly unilateral course in its foreign policy, particularly in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks.

In 2002, Bush withdrew the United States from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty in order to move forward with plans for a missile defense system. Putin called the decision a mistake. Russia strongly opposed the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq, though without exercising its veto in the United Nations Security Council. Russia has regarded the expansion of NATO into the old Eastern Bloc, and U.S. efforts to gain access to Central Asian oil and natural gas as a potentially hostile encroachment on Russia's sphere of influence.

Officials in the United States expressed concern over their perception of Putin's increasingly authoritarian rule and reversal of democratic reforms, human rights violations in Chechnya, suppression of free speech, alleged murder of political dissidents, attacks on journalists in Russia, and support for highly authoritarian regimes in other former Soviet republics.[citation needed]

Moscow has also been accused of using its natural gas resources to blackmail neighboring countries like Ukraine and Georgia to gain concessions on matters of concern to the Kremlin.[citation needed]

Post–Cold War increase of tensions
[edit] U.S. plan to place missiles in Poland

In March 2007, the U.S. announced plans to build an anti-ballistic missile defense installation in Poland along with a radar station in the Czech Republic. Both nations were former Warsaw Pact members. American officials said that the system was intended to protect the United States and Europe from possible nuclear missile attacks by Iran or North Korea. Russia, however, viewed the new system as a potential threat and, in response, tested a long-range intercontinental ballistic missile, the RS-24, which it claimed could defeat any defense system. Russian president Vladimir Putin warned the U.S. that these new tensions could turn Europe into a "powder keg". On 3 June 2007, Putin warned that if the U.S. builds the missile defense system, Russia would consider targeting missiles at Poland and the Czech Republic.[1]

On 16 October 2007, Vladimir Putin visited Iran to discuss Russia's aid to Iran's nuclear power program and "insisted that the use of force was unacceptable."[2] On 17 October Bush stated "if you're interested in avoiding World War III, it seems like you ought to be interested in preventing them from having the knowledge necessary to make a nuclear weapon," understood as a message to Putin.[3] A week later Putin compared U.S. plans to put up a missile defense system near Russia's border as analogous to when the Soviet Union deployed missiles in Cuba, prompting the Cuban Missile Crisis.[4]

On 14 February 2008, Vladimir Putin again announced that Russia might have to retarget some of its rockets towards the missile defense system, claiming that "If it appears, we will be forced to respond appropriately – we will have to retarget part of our systems against those missiles." He also said that missiles might be redirected towards Ukraine if they went ahead with plans to build NATO bases within their territory, saying that "We will be compelled to aim our missiles at facilities that we consider a threat to our national security, and I am putting this plainly now so that the blame for this is not shifted later,"[5]

On 8 July 2008, Russia announced that if a US anti-missile shield is deployed near the Russian border, they will react militarily. The statement from the Russian foreign ministry said "If a US strategic anti-missile shield starts to be deployed near our borders, we will be forced to react not in a diplomatic fashion but with military-technical means." Later, Russia's ambassador to the United Nations Vitaly Churkin stated that "military-technical means" does not mean military action, but more likely a change in Russia's strategic posture, perhaps by redeploying its own missiles.[6]

On 14 August 2008, the United States and Poland agreed to have 10 two-stage missile interceptors – made by Orbital Sciences Corporation – placed in Poland, as part of a missile shield to defend Europe and the US from a possible missile attack by Iran. In return, the US agreed to move a battery of MIM-104 Patriot missiles to Poland. The missile battery would be staffed – at least temporarily – by US Military personnel. The US also pledged to defend Poland – a NATO member – quicker than NATO would in the event of an attack. Additionally, the Czech Republic recently agreed to allow the placement of a radar-tracking station in their country, despite public opinion polls showing that the majority of Czechs are against the plans and only 18% support it.[7] The radar-tracking station in the Czech Republic would also be part of the missile defense shield. After the agreement was announced, Russian officials said defences on Russia's borders would be increased and that they foresee harm in bilateral relations with the United States[8]

On November 5, 2008, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in his first annual address to the Federal Assembly of Russia promised to deploy Iskander short-range missilies to Kaliningrad, near the border with American-backed Poland.[9]

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The establishment of the first East Slavic states in the 9th century coincided with the arrival of Varangians, the traders, warriors and settlers from the Baltic Sea region. Primarily they were Vikings of Scandinavian origin, who ventured along the waterways extending from the eastern Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas.[37] According to the Primary Chronicle, a Varangian from Rus' people, named Rurik, was elected ruler of Novgorod in 862. In 882 his successor Oleg, ventured south and conquered Kiev,[38] which had been previously paying tribute to the Khazars; so the state of Kievan Rus' started. Oleg, Rurik's son Igor and Igor's son Sviatoslav subsequently subdued all local East Slavic tribes to Kievan rule, destroyed the Khazar khaganate and launched several military expeditions to Byzantium and Persia.

In the 10th to 11th centuries Kievan Rus' became one of the largest and most prosperous states in Europe.[39] The reigns of Vladimir the Great (980–1015) and his son Yaroslav I the Wise (1019–1054) constitute the Golden Age of Kiev, which saw the acceptance of Orthodox Christianity from Byzantium and the creation of the first East Slavic written legal code, the Russkaya Pravda.

In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Kipchaks and the Pechenegs, caused a massive migration of Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north, particularly to the area known as Zalesye.[40]
The Baptism of Kievans, by Klavdy Lebedev.

The age of feudalism and decentralization had come, marked by constant in-fighting between members of the Rurik Dynasty that ruled Kievan Rus' collectively. Kiev's dominance waned, to the benefit of Vladimir-Suzdal in the north-east, Novgorod Republic in the north-west and Galicia-Volhynia in the south-west.

Ultimately Kievan Rus' disintegrated, with the final blow being the Mongol invasion of 1237–40,[41] that resulted in the destruction of Kiev[42] and the death of about half the population of Rus'.[43] The invaders, later known as Tatars, formed the state of the Golden Horde, which pillaged the Russian principalities and ruled the southern and central expanses of Russia for over three centuries.[44]

Galicia-Volhynia was eventually assimilated by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, while the Mongol-dominated Vladimir-Suzdal and Novgorod Republic, two regions on the periphery of Kiev, established the basis for the modern Russian nation.[12] The Novgorod together with Pskov retained some degree of autonomy during the time of the Mongol yoke and were largely spared the atrocities that affected the rest of the country. Led by Prince Alexander Nevsky, Novgorodians repelled the invading Swedes in the Battle of the Neva in 1240, as well as the Germanic crusaders in the Battle of the Ice in 1242, breaking their attempts to colonize the Northern Rus'.

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On 9/11 Moscow Grand Mosque Demolished

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Posted on Monday, September 12, 2011 6:33:48 PM by marshmallow
Märcani Mosque

Tatar mosque — is the typical mosque architecture in Tatarstan and other Volga Tatar-populated areas of Russia. Occasionally found in other regions of Russia, modern Tatar religious architecture was developed in the late 18th century and gained popularity in the 19th century Idel-Ural.


The earliest examples of Islamic Tatar architecture are located in Bolghar; none of them are in use today. They reflect strong similarities to Central Asian Islamic architecture from which the designs were derived. However, it is believed that design of rural mosques, opposing to Central Asian-like mosques of capital cities, evolve from their ability to withstand the harsh local climate. Many mosques, both stone and wooden were built, according to this style. The oldest of the still active modern Tatar mosques is the Märcani mosque in the Tatar capital of Kazan. Dating from the reign of Catherine the Great, the mosque's minaret is placed in the center of a gabled roof. It is believed that the concept was adopted from traditional rurual Tatar mosques. The Märcani mosque is an example of revival Tatar religious architecture as most mosques were destroyed due to the Christianization edict of 1742.


The edict on unification of church buildings of 1817 was expanded to the mosques in 1831, when the exemplary project was developed and circulated to governorate architectural offices of Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Perm and Simbirsk Governorates. Tatar mosques, such as Märcani and Apanay were built in baroque style. İske Taş and Pink Mosques were contributed to classicism style.

Among the architects, contributed to the mosques building in the 19th century the most notable were Pyatnitsky, Korinfsky, Schmidt, Peske, Romanov, Yermolayev, Pavlov, Parensov, Petondi, Tekhomirov, as well as non-professional architects Mansurov, Foshderebryuggen, Jakobson.

In 1844 anther exemplary mosque project was introduced, which was used mostly for urban mosques. The minaret was placed at the northern part of the building, under the door. However, mosques with minarets in the roof are constructed till today.

On 9/11 Moscow Grand Mosque Demolished
Moscow, September 12, Interfax - The historical building of the Moscow Grand Mosque was demolished in Moscow last week.
"Workers used special equipment to demolish the building of the historical mosque to the foundation," Albir Krganov, first deputy chairman of the Central Spiritual Directorate of Muslims and mufti of Moscow and the Central Region of Russia told Interfax-Religion.
Krganov said he was surprised that the day selected for the demolition of the mosque was September 11.
"A tragedy occurred in Moscow on the 10th anniversary of the terrorist attacks in the U.S." he said.
Earlier, some leaders of Islamic organizations in Russia criticized the plans of demolishing the Moscow Grand Mosque.
"The issue of demolishing the historical place of worship in Moscow has been stirring the minds of Muslims for several years. It is regrettable that the demolition is initiated not by some descendant of theomachists, who blasted churches of traditional religions or prayer towers of Tatar mosques in the expanses of Russia in the 1930s, but a person who bears the highest spiritual title of mufti," a joint statement of Islamic leaders obtained by Interfax-Religion on Monday says.
Ahead of the Eid ul-Fitr, the news came that the demolition of the historical building of the mosque in Moscow would begin after the end of the fast, and "this was confirmed during the festive sermon" in which head of the Council of Muftis of Russia Ravil Gainutdin "announced the pending demolition of the mosque," the statement says.
For several years, mufti Gainutdin has kept the Tatar community in Moscow "nervous by loudly declaring that the historical building of the Moscow Grand Mosque is not properly oriented toward Mecca and therefore poses no historic value," the statement says.
"Furthermore, he points out the similarity of the architecture of the mosque with the appearance of the Moscow grand synagogue. But that is no reason to demolish the mosque," the statement says.
Muslim leaders urged the federal authorities, the leadership of Moscow and Tatarstan, the World Congress of Tatars, local Tatar communities, public and religious figures in Russia" to raise their voices in defense of Tatar and consequently Russian Islamic heritage, noting that the authorities "have the right to demand that Ravil Gainutdin give up his insane idea of demolishing the historical building of the Moscow Grand Mosque," the statement says.
The statement was signed by head of the Central Muslim Board of Russia Talgat Tajuddin, mufti of Moscow and Central Russia Albir Krganov, the leaders of the All-Russian Muslim Board, head of the Muslim Board of St. Petersburg and Northwest Russia Jafar Ponchayev, the muftis of Rostov, Chelyabinsk, Kurgan and Astrakhan Regions and the Khanty-Mansiisk Autonomous Districts, the leaders of the Russian Islamic Heritage movement and others.

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